Hawk Hill Tunnel Marin Headlands: Marin, California

Hawk Hill, or Battery Construction 129, has been a silent witness to the ecological and cultural changes in and around the San Francisco Bay for eons. It is the story of soldiers waiting for an enemy that never came. Although most of the World War II fortifications built in the park were intended to keep the newest battleships from reaching striking range, the war was fought and ultimately won from the air. Built into the highest point at the Golden Gate, Battery Construction 129 had two large guns mounted under thick concrete shields covered with native vegetation for camouflage and virtually invisible from above.

It features tunnels that connect the two gunpits, magazines, and storage rooms. After Pearl Harbor, the entire Western Defense Command was placed on high alert. Anti-aircraft guns were installed, and radar stations were developed. Even before the war ended, defending the San Francisco Bay against ships became superfluous, and heavy artillery soldiers were transferred to anti-aircraft duties.

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